- Best Foods
- Glycemic Index
- Recommended Fat
- Recommended Protein
- Meal Plan
- Vegan Diet
- ADA Diet
- Paleo Diet
- Weight Loss Diets
- Foods to Avoid
- Eating Out
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- Type 2 diabetes involves problems getting enough glucose into the cells. When the sugar can't get where it is supposed to be, it leads to elevated blood sugar levels in the bloodstream, which can lead to complications such as kidney, nerve, and eye damage, and cardiovascular disease.
- Foods to eat for a type 2 diabetic diet meal plan include complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, whole wheat, quinoa, oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, beans, and lentils. Foods to avoid include simple carbohydrates, which are processed, such as sugar, pasta, white bread, flour, and cookies, pastries.
- Foods with a low glycemic load (index) only cause a modest rise in blood sugar and are better choices for people with diabetes. Good glycemic control can help in preventing long-term complications of type 2 diabetes.
- Fats don't have much of a direct effect on blood sugar but they can be useful in slowing the absorption of carbohydrates.
- Protein provides steady energy with little effect on blood sugar. It keeps blood sugar stable, and can help with sugar cravings and feeling full after eating. Protein-packed foods to eat include beans, legumes, eggs, seafood, dairy, peas, tofu, and lean meats and poultry.
- Five diabetes "superfoods" to eat include chia seeds, wild salmon, white balsamic vinegar, cinnamon, and lentils.
- Healthy diabetes meal plans include plenty of vegetables, and limited processed sugars and red meat.
- Diet recommendations for people with type 2 diabetes include a vegetarian or vegan diet, the American Diabetes Association diet (which also emphasizes exercise), the Paleo Diet, and the Mediterranean diet.
- Guidelines on what to eat for people with type 2 diabetes include eating low glycemic load carbohydrates, primarily from vegetables, and consuming fats and proteins mostly from plant sources.
- What to not to eat if you have type 2 diabetes: sodas (regular and diet), refined sugars, processed carbohydrates, trans fats, high-fat animal products, high-fat dairy products, high fructose corn syrup, artificial sweeteners, and any highly processed foods.
Oral Medications for Type 2 Diabetes
Currently, there are nine drug classes of oral diabetes medications approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
- Sulfonylureas, for example, glimepiride (Amaryl) and glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) Meglitinides, for example, nateglinide (Starlix) and repaglinide (Prandin)
- Thiazolidinediones, for example, pioglitazone (Actos)
- DPP-4 inhibitors, for example, sitagliptin (Januvia) and linagliptin (Tradjenta)
What is type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes occurs over time, and involves problems getting enough sugar (glucose) into the cells of the body. (The cells use the sugar for fuel/energy.)
- Sugar (glucose) is the preferred fuel for muscle and brain cells, but it requires insulin to transport it into cells for use.
- When insulin levels are low, and the sugar can't get into the cells where it is supposed to be, it leads to elevated blood sugar levels.
- Over time, the cells develop resistance to insulin (insulin resistance), which then requires the pancreas to make more and more insulin to move sugar into the cells; however, more sugar is still left in the blood.
- The pancreas eventually "wears out," and can no longer secrete enough insulin to move the sugar into the cells for energy.
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A diabetes meal plan can follow a number of different patterns and have a variable ratio of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
- The carbohydrates consumed should be low glycemic load and come primarily from vegetables.
- The fat and proteins consumed should primarily come from plant sources.
SLIDESHOWDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating See Slideshow
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Glycemic index and load
diabetes meals and recipes low carb no sugar snacks (🔴 onset age) | diabetes meals and recipes low carb no sugar with hyperglycemia icd 10how to diabetes meals and recipes low carb no sugar for Carbohydrates (carbs) are the primary food that raises blood sugar. Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure the impact of a carbohydrate on blood sugar.
- Foods with low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly and thus are better choices for people with diabetes.
- The main factors that determine a food's (or meal's) glycemic load are the amount of fiber, fat, and protein it contains.
- The difference between glycemic index and glycemic load is that glycemic index is a standardized measurement and glycemic load accounts for a real-life portion size. For example, the glycemic index of a bowl of peas is 68 (per 100 grams) but its glycemic load is just 16 (lower the better). If you just referred to the glycemic index, you'd think peas were a bad choice, but in reality, you wouldn't eat 100 grams of peas. With a normal portion size, peas have a healthy glycemic load as well as being an excellent source of protein.
Carbohydrates can be classified as either
- complex carbohydrates, or
- simple sugars.
1. Complex carbohydrates (low the 1 last update 01 Jun 2020 glycemic load foods, or foods that are a part of a type 2 diabetes low-carb diet plan) are in their whole food form and include additional nutrients such as:1. Complex carbohydrates (low glycemic load foods, or foods that are a part of a type 2 diabetes low-carb diet plan) are in their whole food form and include additional nutrients such as:
These additional nutrients slow down the absorption of the glucose and keep blood sugar levels more stable.
Examples of complex carbohydrates, or low glycemic load (index) foods include:
- Brown rice
- Whole wheat
- Steel-cut oatmeal
Grains and starchy vegetables
Whole grains, such as brown rice, quinoa, and oatmeal are good sources of fiber and nutrients; and have a low glycemic load making them good food choices. Processed food labels make it very confusing to understand whole grains. For example, "whole wheat bread" is made in many different ways, and some are not that different from white bread in its blood sugar impact (glycemic load). The same is true for whole grain pasta, it's still pasta. Whole grains have less of an impact on blood sugar because of the lower glycemic load. Choose whole grains that are still in their grain form like brown rice and quinoa, or look for 1 last update 01 Jun 2020 at the fiber content on the nutrition label. For example, a "good" whole grain high-fiber bread will have 3+ grams of fiber per slice.Whole grains, such as brown rice, quinoa, and oatmeal are good sources of fiber and nutrients; and have a low glycemic load making them good food choices. Processed food labels make it very confusing to understand whole grains. For example, "whole wheat bread" is made in many different ways, and some are not that different from white bread in its blood sugar impact (glycemic load). The same is true for whole grain pasta, it's still pasta. Whole grains have less of an impact on blood sugar because of the lower glycemic load. Choose whole grains that are still in their grain form like brown rice and quinoa, or look at the fiber content on the nutrition label. For example, a "good" whole grain high-fiber bread will have 3+ grams of fiber per slice.
Starchy vegetables that are good sources of nutrients like vitamin C, and that are higher in carbohydrates than green vegetables, but lower in carbs than refined grains. They can be eaten in moderation. Starchy vegetables include:
- Other root vegetables
The above starchy vegetables are best eaten in smaller portions (1 cup) as part of a combination meal that includes protein and plant-based fat.
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Non-starchy vegetables, such as green vegetables, can be eaten in abundance. These foods have limited impact on blood sugar, and also have many health benefits, so eat up! Almost everyone can eat more vegetables - we need at least five servings a day.
Fresh vegetables are a great option, and usually the tastiest option. Studies show that frozen veggies have just as many vitamins and nutrients because they are often frozen within hours of harvesting. Just check to make sure there aren't added fats or sweeteners in the sauces that are on some frozen veggies. If you don't like vegetables on their own, try preparing them with fresh or dried herbs, olive oil, or a vinaigrette dressing. Aiming to consume a rainbow of colors through your vegetables is a good way to get all of your nutrients.
2. Simple carbohydrates (high glycemic load foods, or foods that are not part of a type 2 diabetes diet plan because they raise blood sugar levels) are processed foods, and don't contain other for 1 last update 01 Jun 2020 nutrients to slow down sugar absorption and thus these foods can raise blood sugar dangerously fast. Many simple carbohydrates that are off-limits are easily recognized as "white foods."2. Simple carbohydrates (high glycemic load foods, or foods that are not part of a type 2 diabetes diet plan because they raise blood sugar levels) are processed foods, and don't contain other nutrients to slow down sugar absorption and thus these foods can raise blood sugar dangerously fast. Many simple carbohydrates that are off-limits are easily recognized as "white foods."
Simple carbohydrates or high glycemic index foods that should not be included in your diet, for example::
- White pasta
- White bread
- White potatoes
- Breakfast cereals
- Pastries and sweets
- Fruit juice
- Soft drinks
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Which type of fats are recommended?
Fats have little direct effect on blood sugar; but, as part of a meal, they are useful in slowing down the absorption of carbohydrates. Fats also have effects on health that are not related to blood sugar. For example:
- Animal meat fats increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, dairy, and specifically fermented dairy such as yogurt, appears to decrease this risk.
- Plant-based fats such as olive oil, nuts, seeds, and avocado are associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk.
- Fat also contributes to feelings of satiety and can play a role in managing overeating and carbohydrate cravings. A portion of healthy fats (like avocado on whole grain toast) is much more satisfying and healthy than jam on white toast.
Which types of protein are recommended?
Protein provides slow steady energy with relatively little effect on blood sugar. Protein, especially plant-based protein, should always be part of a meal or snack. Protein not only keeps blood sugar stable, but it also helps with sugar cravings and feeling full after eating (satiety). Protein can come from both animal or plant sources; however, animal sources are also often sources of unhealthy saturated fats.
Good protein choices include:
- Fish and seafood
- Organic dairy products
- Tofu and soy foods
- Lean meats such as chicken and turkey
Pay attention to the balance of macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrates) in a meal to support stable blood sugar levels. Specifically, fat, protein, and fiber all slow down the absorption of carbohydrates and thus allow time for a slower, lower insulin release and a steady transport of glucose out of the blood and into the target tissues - this is a good thing.
What types of diet or meal plans are recommended for people with type 2 diabetes?
Several dietary patterns have been studied, and have shown to have beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes. Because multiple patterns work, people can choose the eating pattern that works best for them. However, there are commonalities among all healthy diabetes diets. All healthy diabetes meal plans include:
- a lot of vegetables, and
- limit processed sugars and red meat.
People with type 2 diabetes must be extra aware of the carbohydrate content of their meals so their blood sugar levels don't rise, or if they are using injectable insulin, so they can dose insulin appropriately.
QUESTIONDiabetes is defined best as... See Answer
What are the 1 last update 01 Jun 2020 vegetarian or vegan diets?What are vegetarian or vegan diets?
A vegetarian or vegan diet can be a good choice for people with diabetes. Vegetarian and vegan diets are typically high in carbohydrates - about 13% higher than a diet with that includes both plant and animal products (omnivorous) – which we generally think is bad for diabetes. However, a vegetarian or vegan diet is typically fiber-rich and lower in calories and saturated fat, so the inflammatory risks associated with high meat consumption are avoided. Research studies that have tested vegetarian and vegan diets for people with diabetes; have found them to be beneficial at reducing blood sugar.
A good quality vegetarian the 1 last update 01 Jun 2020 or vegan diet:A good quality vegetarian or vegan diet:
- Is high in vegetables and fruits
- Includes quality proteins such as beans, nuts, and seeds
- Includes plant-based fats such as olive oil and avocado
- Prioritizes whole grains such as brown rice and quinoa rather than refined carbohydrates (sweets and processed, packaged white foods)
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The American Diabetes Association (ADA) advocates for a healthy diet with an emphasis on balancing energy intake with exercise. Historically, they have advocated for the majority of calories coming from complex carbohydrates from whole grains such as whole-grain bread and other whole-grain cereal products and a decreased intake of total fat with most of it coming from unsaturated fat.
Recently, this has shifted to acknowledge that there is no one ideal macronutrient ratio, and that dietary plans should be individualized. ADA guidelines advocate:
- Low glycemic load
- Avoid sugar-sweetened beverages including soda
- The importance of fat quality as well as quantity
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Fatty Liver (NASH)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within for 1 last update 01 Jun 2020 the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NASH occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes.
Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include mental changes, liver cancer, the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and gastrointestinal bleeding.
Treatment for fatty liver includes avoiding certain foods and alcohol. Exercise, weight loss, bariatric surgery, and liver transplantation are treatments for fatty liver disease.